Five-Year Survival Rate: The percentage of patients diagnosed with a disease who are alive five years after diagnosis of their disease.
Folic Acid: A form of vitamin B obtained from green leafy vegetables, e.g. spinach. It is essential for synthesis of DNA and therefore the growth and division of cells.
Folic Acid Antagonist: A chemical synthesized to inhibit the cell's ability to use folic acid and therefore prevents the synthesis of DNA and subsequent T-cell division. The folic acid antagonist aminopterin was the first drug synthesized and used as a chemotherapeutic agent in acute lymphoblastic anemia of childhood. Amethopterin (methotrexate), another of several such drugs, is now used more commonly. This category of drugs falls into the general class of antimetabolites because they are spurious copies of natural metabolic agents. They are so similar in structure that the cell takes them in but they are just enough different as to prevent the effect produced by the natural compound.
Follicular Lymphoma: This term is used to describe a lymphoma in which the lymphoma cells are grouped in clusters or follicles in the lymph node. This pattern is distinct from diffuse lymphomas in which the lymphoma cells are spread more or less evenly throughout the lymph node. On average follicular lymphomas are not as rapidly progressive as diffuse lymphomas.
Fractionation of Total Body Irradiation: In order to minimize the side effects of this type of therapy, the dose of radiation required is given in several smaller daily doses than one larger dose. This approach has decreased the side effects of high-dose radiotherapy.
Fungus: A microbe often referred to as mold or yeast. There are many species of fungi and some are prone to become infectious in immunosuppressed patients such as after stem cell transplantation or after multiple treatments with high-dose chemotherapy for progressive leukemia or lymphoma. These fungi include Candida, Aspergillus, Histoplasma, and others.